Periodontal Diseases as an Emerging Potential Risk Factor for Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes: A Review of Concepts


  • Jyoti Bansal
  • Abhishek Bansal
  • Navneet Kukreja
  • Urvashi Kukreja

Received Date: 16.04.2011 Accepted Date: 23.06.2011 J Turk Ger Gynecol Assoc 2011;12(3):176-180 PMID: 24591987

Preterm birth is the leading perinatal problem with subsequent morbidity and mortality in developed as well as developing nations. Among the various possible environmental, genetic, demographic, psychosocial and obstetric risk factors responsible for premature labor, poor oral health with periodontal infection has also emerged as a potential and modifiable risk factor for preterm low birth weight babies. The infected periodontium is regarded as a reservoir for periodontopathic bacteria, mainly gram negative anaerobes that serve as a source of endotoxins and lipopolysaccharides, proinflammatory cytokines and prostaglandins that enhance uterine muscle contraction leading to preterm low birth weight. Also, the progression of periodontal disease during pregnancy appears to increase the fetal growth restriction, irrespective of baseline periodontal disease status. Thus, identification and treatment of periodontal disease should be considered an important intervention strategy as a part of prenatal care to reduce adverse pregnancy outcomes.

Keywords: Adverse pregnancy outcomes, periodontal diseases, preterm low birth weigh